Archives for posts with tag: Grover Washington Jr.

Book Review & Playlist: My Life With Earth, Wind, and Fire, Maurice White with Herb Powell (Harper Collins, 2015)

Maurice White was the visionary, founder, and very much the Chief Executive Officer of Earth, Wind, and Fire. I recently read his fascinating memoir, published just a year before his death in 2016. He was 74.

What you would expect from a musical autobiography is all there: Rich detail about EWF’s beginnings and the backstory of their many classic songs and albums. EWF’s fascination with things celestial, astrology, and Egyptology are illuminated. For me, White’s observations on racism in the music industry were among the most interesting. Maurice White’s hard-fought journey was presciently articulated by African-American leader Booker T. Washington. This quote opened his chapter called Black Tax:

I have learned that success is to be measured not so much by the position that one has reached in life as by the obstacles which he has overcome while trying to succeed. Out of the hard and unusual struggle through which he is compelled to pass, he gets a strength, a confidence, that one misses whose pathway is comparatively smooth by reason of birth and race.  – Booker T. Washington

Wanting to include a playlist in this post, I struggled with how to keep it concise. White’s body of work is so vast and EWF’s hits so numerous that even a sampling would be inadequate. Instead, I’ve focussed not so much on EWF’s greatness but on White’s perspective of just how that greatness came to be. The playlist is in three parts, named: Inspiration, Evolution, and Transition.

Part I – Inspiration

  1. “I Will Move On Up a Little Higher” – Mahalia Jackson (traditional): White begins his story in Memphis TN where he lived with his “Mama,” who loved Mahalia Jackson. “The Queen of Gospel,” as she was known, could be heard frequently in White’s boyhood home.
  2. “It Should Have Been Me” Ray Charles (Atlantic Records, 1954): In Mama’s house, the spiritual was balanced by the boogie-woogie grooves of Ray Charles and others.
  3. “Sakeena’s Vision”Art Blakey & The Jazz Messengers (Blue Note Records, 1960): Having moved to Chicago, White was exposed to more music. He described being “mesmerized” by this album from drummer Art Blakey, learning the parts by banging on schoolbooks with his drumsticks.
  4. “You’re No Good”Betty Everett (Vee-Jay Records, 1963): Now a session drummer in Chicago’s hot R&B/Soul recording scene, this was the first hit record featuring Maurice White on drums, reaching number 51 on Billboard’s Hot 100.
  5. “Sittin’ in the Park”Billy Stewart (Chess Records, 1965): White played drums on this lovely tune. Stewart was known to gesture and interact with his musicians during his recording sessions. Writes White, “Billy Stewart taught me how to the pull the best out of a rhythm section by just standing there half directing, half dancing.”
  6. “Hang on Sloopy”Ramsey Lewis Trio (Chess Records, 1965): Having joined the popular jazz pianist’s trio, White enjoyed his first major financial success, with a steady stream of work from hit records like this one.
  7. “Dance to the Music”Sly & the Family Stone (Epic, 1968): White was strongly inspired by Sly & The Family Stone, giving credit to the group for serving as a blueprint for some of the biggest R&B groups of the 70’s, including EWF.

Part II – Evolution

  1. “La La Time”The Salty Peppers (Capitol Records, 1969): Considered ‘proto-EWF,’ White recorded this with Don Whitehead and a band of session musicians from the Chicago scene. Donny Hathaway who would later become an R&B legend in his own right, was on keyboards and did the vocal arrangements.
  2. “I’d Rather Have You”Earth, Wind & Fire, Last Days and Time (Columbia, 1972): Written by Skip Scarborough who was a regular collaborator with White, this song was one of the first with the backing vocal sound that would become a signature of EWF. Jessica Cleaves is on lead vocal.
  3. “Evil”Earth, Wind & Fire, Head to the Sky (Columbia, 1973): I think this song is apt for three reasons. First, it features White on Kalimba, a traditional African instrument he was known for, even in his time with the Ramsey Lewis Trio (watch this touching tribute from Lewis recorded not long after White’s passing, where White’s kalimba performances are referenced). Second, it was the first record featuring a Minimoog, played by none other than Larry Dunn, who would be a core member of EWF for their greatest decade of recording. Finally, this album saw EWF enter a “flower power” phase and turn to a more visual expression, pushing the importance of costume in their live performances.
  4. “Devotion”Earth, Wind & Fire, Open Our Eyes (Columbia, 1974): This is the first album EWF recorded with Charles Stepney, one of White’s most influential collaborators. White notes that Stepney drew out one of Philip Bailey’s best vocal performances to date at the time of this recording, setting the tone for Bailey’s legendary contribution to the EWF sound, even to this day.
  5. “That’s the Way of the World”Earth, Wind & Fire, That’s the Way of the World (Columbia, 1975): Written by Stepney, this has become one of EWF’s most famous recordings. Also notable is that this was the first album recorded with George Massenburg as lead Engineer. Massenburg was key to the mixing of the numerous and complex layers to EWF’s arrangements.
  6. “Getaway”Earth, Wind & Fire, Spirit (Columbia, 1976): Another Stepney collaboration, White described the intro of this song as ‘blazing’ and credited it with putting heat into the EWF sound. Sadly, Stepney died before the album was released.
  7. “The Best of My Love”The Emotions, Rejoice (Columbia, 1977): Written by Al McKay and Maurice White for The Emotions, a vocal group White helped develop, it was the most successful single of White’s career, topping the R&B, Disco, and Pop charts.
  8. “September”Earth, Wind & Fire, The Best of Earth, Wind & Fire Vol. 1 (Columbia, 1978): Also written by McKay and White, this now iconic song was released on the group’s first collection. Writing about this moment in their career, White quotes CBS president Bruce Lundvall as saying EWF was the biggest band in the world.

Part III – Transition

  1. “After the Love Has Gone”Earth, Wind & Fire, I Am (Columbia, 1979): White brought in new songwriters for the I Am album. Among them was David Foster a newcomer who would make his mark not only on EWF but on pop music for decades to come. This was the first album where no other members of the band were used as songwriters. A bit of salt on that open wound was an incident when Foster, hailing from the distinctly white community of Vancouver Island, naively used the term “boys” in the Canadian context (like “buddy”) while directing the famous EWF horn section. One of the musicians immediately drew a gun in protest, prompting White to step in and give Foster a crash course on American race relations.
  2. “Let’s Groove”Earth, Wind & Fire, Raise! (ARC Columbia, 1981): The longest running #1 R&B hit at the time, this song was co-written with Wayne Vaughn. The tour for Raise! was a massive production and demonstrates EWF’s exceptional scale. Pre-production for the tour cost $700k and each date cost $60k to produce. The crew was 60 people strong, with equipment, costumes, and sets filling up 14 tractor trailers. With the explosion of MTV and the importance of the music video in promoting new music, White points out the inherent racism that excluded black acts from the medium. Rick James and EWF had some of the biggest hits of the day but were absent from MTV playlists. White described this as a “black tax” and it was pervasive through their touring, media appearances, and promotional activities.
  3. “Time Machine”Barbra Streisand, Emotion (Columbia, 1984): An odd choice, I admit, but indicative of the stature White held in the business. His songwriting talents were sought out to create a strong single for Streisand’s 23rd studio album, which went on to Platinum. Despite the dated 80s treatment, this is essentially a pretty good tune. This was also the year EWF went on a 3-year hiatus. White would also record a solo album in 1986, including a hit remake of Ben E. King’s “Stand by Me.”
  4. “Sunday Morning”Earth, Wind & Fire, Millennium (Warner Brothers, 1993): Maurice White was diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease prior to this album’s release and the tour of Millennium was the first without White. Despite his health struggles and the changing musical tastes since the group reformed in 1987, the band reached #20 on R&B charts with this Grammy nominated hit.
  5. “Hearts of Longing”Urban Knights, Urban Knights (UMG Recordings, 1995): His performing career at an end, White continued to contribute musically to EWF and produced this project with his original jazz mentor, Ramsey Lewis. This smooth jazz album featured Grover Washington Jr. on saxophone, Omar Hakim on drums, and Victor Bailey on bass.

White wrote that he wanted his music to uplift and unify humanity. Listen and you’ll see, he succeeded by any measure.

 

Related:

UK DJ/Producer Patrick Forge podcast tribute to Maurice White

 

 

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Album Review: The Epic, Kamasi Washington (Brainfeeder, May 2015)

kwKamasi Washington is a jazz saxophonist that joins the vanguard of musicians bridging jazz with contemporary music from the many genres in its orbit. Listening to his album, The Epic, I wonder if Washington is this generation’s Herbie Hancock – someone who pushes the boundaries of jazz but does so from a place of legitimacy.

You might say the same of Robert Glasper and jazz innovators before him like Guru and Ronny Jordan. But there is something different about Washington’s brand of innovation. Perhaps it is his pedigree, having played with legends like Wayne Shorter, Herbie Hancock, Harvey MasonKenny Burrell, and George Duke.

The Epic is an incredibly immersive listening experience. I would liken it to a concept album by a band like Pink Floyd or an opus like Miles Davis’ Bitches Brew. It’s not the ethereality or electronic treatment that inspires this comparison. Rather, it is the ambition, the grandioseness of this album. It is truly the epic jazz album of the year, if not this decade.

The Epic’s ambience is established through a combination of Washington’s improvisation, a steady and pervasive baseline from Miles Mosley’s acoustic bass, and 20-person choir that evokes a blend of 60’s spiritual jazz and sci-fi cinematic scores. This sound emerges as Washington’s signature while being subdued enough to support, not displace, the profound range and depth of performances and compositions on the album.

With nearly 3 hours of music, the musicians are well showcased. I can’t recall the last time I heard so many generous and wonderful trombone solos, as played by Ryan Porter on tracks like “Leroy and Lanisha” and “Re-Run Home.” Igmar Thomas’ trumpet is another capable foil to Washington’s tenor sax. Stephen Bruner (a.k.a. Thundercat) brings his unique electric bass sound to “Askim,” interplaying fantastically with the majestic choir conducted by Miguel Atwood-Ferguson. Atwood-Ferguson, incidentally, worked on another recent spiritual jazz revival of sorts, my personal pick for 2014 album of the year, Church, by Mark de Clive Lowe.

Washington himself is a remarkable talent on the saxophone. His range is broad, from hard blowing dissonance reminiscent of Pharoah Sanders to the easy swing of a popular saxophonist like Grover Washington Jr. Kamasi Washington is comfortable and capable at both extremes and this album sees him traverse the expanse.

The Epic’s more conventional arrangements include “Cherokee,” a lovely tune sung by Patrice Quinn in the best tradition of lounge jazz and a version of Debussy’s “Clair de Lune,” arranged in 3/4 time while maintaining the composition’s lilting beauty.

To me, this album’s appeal is peculiar because I find it simultaneously exhilarating and comforting. I’m excited by its newness – but also comforted that we have a new and credible steward to lead jazz forward. With The Epic, Kamasi Washington sets forth.

 

The Players: Kamasi Washington – Tenor Saxophone; Thundercat – Electric Bass; Miles Mosley – Acoustic Bass; Ronald Bruner Jr. – Drums; Tony Austin – Drums; Leon Mobley – Percussion; Cameron Graves – Piano; Brandon Coleman – Keyboards; Ryan Porter – Trombone; Igmar Thomas – Trumpet; Patrice Quinn – Lead Vocal; Dwight Tribble – Lead Vocal

Playlist: Harvey Mason – Jazz’s tightest drummer

harvey-mason4

Harvey Mason

We all have our ‘go to’ answers when someone asks, “who’s your favourite drummer?” My mind always goes to the rock genre after which it takes about 0.3 seconds to arrive at Keith Moon (Bonham and Peart are a close second and third). But if asked who my favourite jazz drummer was, I’d probably run through my relatively short mental Rolodex and offer up Art Blakey, mostly because Buddy Rich is too predictable and Gene Krupa was more known for big band than modern jazz.

However, I’ve recently discovered the man behind the drum kit in many of my favourite jazz and jazz fusion recordings. Now I have my stock answer:

Harvey Mason is my favourite jazz drummer.

To celebrate his breadth and illuminate an astounding career (still in progress), I thought I’d share a short playlist.

    1. Donald Byrd, Street Lady, Flight Time (Blue Note, 1973)
    2. Herbie Hancock, Head Hunters, Watermelon Man (Columbia, 1973)+
    3. Grover Washington Jr., A Secret Place, Love Makes it Better (Kudu, 1976)*
    4. Donald Byrd, Stepping into Tomorrow, Stepping into Tomorrow (Blue Note, 1975)
    5. Bobbi Humphrey, Blacks and Blues, Harlem River Drive (Blue Note, 1973)
    6. George Benson, Breezin’, Breezin’ (Warner Bros., 1976)
    7. Harvey Mason, Earthmover, K.Y. and the Curve (Arista, 1976)*
    8. Harvey Mason, Funk in a Mason Jar, Til You Take My Love (Arista, 1977)*+
    9. Bob James, Three, Westchester Lady (CTI, 1976)
    10. Fourplay, Esprit de Four, Sonnymoon (Concord Music, 2012)

*Song co-written by Mason; +Song arranged by Mason

Track 1 is Donald Byrd’s “Flight Time,” which features Mason in what I think is one of the greatest jazz drum lines ever. Like the other Mizell Brothers’ produced tracks on this list (nos. 4 & 5), Mason provides a tight and driving backdrop to an easy going groove.

As if working with Byrd and the Mizells wasn’t impressive enough, in the same year Mason also appeared on Herbie Hancock’s seminal album, Head Hunters. Not only is he responsible for the steady hand we hear on the monster jazz/funk fusion hit, “Chamaeleon” but he also arranged and performed on “Watermelon Man,” track 2 of our tour. Mason brought innovative funk treatments to the song, which had been in Hancock’s repertoire for 10 years before this most famous version was recorded.

Continuing his association with those who would become synonymous with jazz fusion and jazz-funk, Mason appeared on Grover Washington Jr.’s classic, Mister Magic. Track 3 on my playlist is a lesser known track from Mason’s stint with Washington: “Love Makes it Better.” Mason penned this song, which suits both his and Washington’s style. Mason’s rhythm track grounds the song, allowing the Washington to soar freely in his solos.

Tracks 4 & 5 are from the golden era of Larry and Fonce Mizell at Blue Note Records. Donald Byrd’s “Stepping into Tomorrow” and Bobbi Humphrey’s “Harlem River Drive” are both classic Mizell Brothers tunes. One of the reasons they endure today is because of Mason’s performance. “Stepping into Tomorrow,” with its menacing bassline, rolls along with the Mizell’s lush arrangements filling in the spaces. The song’s foundation is Mason’s flawless and relentless rhythm track. On “Harlem River Drive,” Mason does what great drummers do most of the time, which is play well without being noticed.

George Benson’s classic recording of the Bobby Womack song, “Breezin'” is track 6. It’s hard to find a more iconic track from the seventies. Moving away from more traditional jazz or jazz-funk arrangements, George Benson broke new ground with this release, crossing over into pop whilst applying jazz instrumentation. Again, Mason’s playing underpins Benson’s melodic guitar lines and keeps the listener engaged throughout the nearly six minute track.

earthmoverMason’s solo career is as long and distinguished as his time as a sideman. The next two tracks come from an era of soulful funk and disco which saw Mason branch out into popular music with vocals and higher production values. Tracks 7 & 8, “K.Y. and the Curve” and “Til You Take My Love” are joyful tracks incorporating the best from that era, including great string arrangements, funk-inspired guitar lines, and ensemble vocals (including Mason himself on “K.Y. and the Curve”).

masonjarTrack 9 is Bob James’ broadly recognizable, “Westchester Lady,” another anthem from the 1970’s. Mason’s timing is impeccable, interplaying with James’ stacatto keyboards and his punchy horn section.

Closing the playlist is a track that returns us to the jazz fusion genre, which Mason has helped define through the decades. Fourplay’s “Sonnymoon” (track 10) is more straight ahead jazz than much of their repertoire. Mason’s playing is as tight as ever, despite having just become a ‘senior citizen’ at 65 when this track was released in 2012.

Mason’s career continues today. He will be recording a new CD this year under his “Chamaeleon Project” monicker.

Who’s your favourite jazz drummer?

Related:

Playlist: The Philadelphia Sound

Philadelphia Soul is not so much a genre as it is a sound. The “Philly Sound” is described pretty well by its Wikipedia entry, Producers Kenneth Gamble and Leon Huff (pictured) are the pioneers behind much of the music with this moniker but it is not restricted to Gamble & Huff or the Philadelphia International Records label.

Since I wanted to learn more about the sound, its history, and the producers and musicians who made it come to life, I thought a playlist was just what I needed to traverse its soundscape.

  1. Mister Magic – Grover Washington Jr., Mister Magic, (UMG Recordings, 1974)
  2. K-Jee MFSB, Universal Love (Philadelphia International Records, 1975)
  3. I Love Music – The O’JaysFamily Reunion (Philadelphia International Records, 1975)
  4. People Make the World Go Round – The StylisticsThe Stylistics (Avco, 1971)
  5. Lady Love – Lou RawlsWhen You Hear Lou, You’ve Heard it All (Philadelphia International Records, 1977)
  6. One on One – Hall & OatesH2O (RCA, 1982)
  7. Me and Mrs. JonesBilly Paul, 360 Degrees of Billy Paul (Philadelphia International Records, 1972)
  8. Work it Out  (single) – Breakwater,(Arista, 1979)
  9. Minute by Minute – The Doobie BrothersMinute by Minute (Warner Bros., 1978)
  10. Nights Over Egypt  (single) – The Jones Girls, (Philadelphia International Records, 1981)
  11. Funkfoot – Grover Washington Jr.Live at the Bijou (Kudu Records, 1977)

I’ve bookended the playlist with Grover Washington Jr. The closing selection is from his brilliant live album, Live at the Bijou. You can read my review of that here. Although his breakthrough was 1980’s Winelight (Elektra Entertainment), Grover Washington Jr.’s rise arguably began 13 years earlier when he landed in Philadelphia as a sideman. I wonder if the warm bass and keyboard textures on Mister Magic were the product of or inspiration to recordings in the Gamble & Huff songbook?

MFSB and the O’Jays are two acts that were firmly in the Philadelphia International Records stable. MFSB (or Mother, Father, Brother, Sister) featured prominent string arrangements and squelchy guitars that would win them a place on the now classic Saturday Night Fever soundtrack (RSO, 1977), released two years after K-Jee was recorded.

The Stylistics showcase a falsetto vocal, prominent in many classic Philly Soul recordings. This tune was used beautifully in the opening montage of Spike Lee’s film, Crooklyn. Vocals are also featured on the next three tracks, beginning with the relaxed smoothness of Lou Rawls. Philadelphia natives Daryl Hall and John Oates, were undoubtedly influenced by their surroundings and carried the torch admirably well into the late Eighties. The next track, Me  & Mrs. Jones, was covered by Hall & Oates but I’ve selected Billy Paul’s original here, written by Gamble & Huff themselves.

The next two tracks by Breakwater and The Doobie Brothers are not officially associated with the Philly scene. But this is proof the “sound” escaped the confines of Gamble & Huff’s realm and influenced so many artists past and present. Minute by Minute was an uncharacteristic album for a “country rock” band like the Doobies but it was their greatest success. I posted a short review of that album here.

The Jones Girls were another staple with Philadelphia International Records. Nights Over Egypt was not their biggest hit but has weathered the years better than most other songs in their catalogue. Nights was written by Dexter Wansel, a close collaborator with Gamble & Huff.

Feature: Jazz Guitar – A Family Tree

I’ve recently become re-enamoured with Kenny Burrell’s music. He is a remarkably naturalistic jazz guitarist who is still going strong today. Most would reference Midnight Blue (Blue Note, 1963) as a definitive record for him. It is certainly one of the finer jazz recordings in my collection. But my favourite, 1985’s Togethering with Grover Washington Jr., is no longer on issue from Blue Note.  There’s something about that recording that brings Burrell’s talent into vivid focus. It is mostly an upbeat record with more of a bossa feel than his other work. The duets with Washington are clearly the work of two masters in perfect tune with one another.

In my as yet fruitless search for downloads of this album, I’ve gleaned other guitarists of his ilk and mapped out a musical family tree that may help those of you wishing to broaden your jazz guitar collection.

Which “Jazz Guitar” am I talking about?

Jazz is such a broad genre and anyone writing about “Jazz Guitar” is prone to boiling the ocean. I’ll draw my boundaries around those musicians who play the archtop guitar also known as the “jazzbox.” I’ll further narrow focus on those who play their guitars in the context of primarily improvised jazz music with traditional band make-ups such as jazz trios, quartets etc.

For this reason, you won’t find mention of some notable electric guitar ambassadors like Chet Atkins, Les Paul, Pat Metheny, and Stanley Jordan.

It all started with…(well, it depends on who you ask)

Many histories of the jazz guitar name Django Reinhardt as one of the founding fathers of the instrument. Indeed, he was a pioneer. But his influence on the particular genre of guitar characterized by Kenny Burrell’s music was indirect, in my opinion. His was more influenced by Roma folk music and closer to flamenco than jazz.

Next in line is Charlie Christian and this is where the family tree really begins. Christian played in Benny Goodman’s big band and was one of the first to successfully feature the guitar as a bonafide solo instrument. Before then, the guitar was on the fringe of the then popular big band sound.

Christian was an influence on Wes Montgomery, who is also touted as the patriarch of the jazz guitar family. If Charlie Christian brought the instrument into the listener’s mainstream, it was Montgomery who made young musicians want to play it, and play it like him.

Kenny Burrell and the Golden Age of Jazz

To me, the 1950s and 60s were the Golden age of jazz music. These were the years of timeless Blue Note recordings, innovative arrangements, and a cross-pollination of side-men and leaders that marked a prolific era in music.

As a sideman, Kenny Burrell played with Oscar Peterson. He recorded with many of the greats of that era including Dizzy Gillespie and John Coltrane. In his own right, Burrell recorded many albums through the decades and has also become a beloved music educator.

Another notable of this era is Joe Pass, who played along side Frank Sinatra, Sarah Vaughan, and most notably, Ella Fitizgerald. He was celebrated for his technique which broke new ground in the use of chord melodies, inversions, and progressions.

Lenny Breau, another peculiarly talented technician on the guitar, flew under the radar in Canada for many years, surfacing from time to time to play on Canadian television. His first LP, Guitar Sounds from Lenny Breau (RCA, 1968) was the fruit of a friendship he had struck with Chet Atkins in the late 60s.

Jazz on Acid

As Jazz’ popularity was overtaken by rock and roll, and then funk and disco, there were a few trailblazers who pulled at the fringes of jazz to modernize it. Herbie Hancock was certainly the ringleader and was criticized by essentialists who didn’t understand his vision. Admittedly, Jazz can be utterly butchered if it is ‘modernized’ in a careless way. But Hancock had an old school pedigree and was successful, on more than one occasion, in making jazz relevant for a new generation.

While Hancock was leading a piano/keyboard revolution, George Benson did his part for the jazz guitar. By combining soulful vocals, tunes with an R&B sensability, and his jazz guitar sound, Benson mashed up the genres and made the jazz cross-over possible. Breezin’ (Warner Bros., 1976) may be overplayed and evoke a passe disco sound by today’s standards but it is an important milestone, if only for the success it had in using a decidedly jazz sound in popular music.

Benson opened the door but it was Ronny Jordan who many point to as the flagbearer of the new genre that was given the unfortunate and meaningless moniker, Acid Jazz (I could go on about how I love acid jazz music but abhor the label…but that is an entirely different subject). By the time of Jordan’s first release, The Antidote (Island, 1992), hip-hop had taken a firm hold on popular music. Rather than isolating himself from it, Jordan embraced it, and collaborated on all of his albums with producers and hip-hop artists who were able to fuse jazz, funk, and hip-hop in a natural way.

Take Your Pick

Whether you discover someone else or pick one of the guitarists I cite above in my short and humble history, I hope you’ll find your own joy in the wonder of a jazzbox in the right hands.

Notable Jazz Guitarists of the 20th Century

Django Reinhardt (b. 1910, d. 1953) – active in the 30s and 40s, gypsy style, flamenco influence

Charlie Christian (b. 1916, d. 1942) – played with Benny Goodman starting in 1939; influenced more by horn players; not influenced by Django

Tal Farlow (b. 1921, d. 1998) – played with Mingus and Artie Shaw

Johnny Smith (b. 1922) – active in the 40s and 50s; played with Count Basie and Stan Getz

Wes Montgomery (b. 1923, d. 1968) – recorded in 50s and 60s; influenced many guitarists after him

Barney Kessell (b. 1923, d. 2004) – played with Charlie Parker, Ray Brown, and Oscar Peterson

Joe Pass (b. 1929, d. 1994) – active from the 40s through his death in 94; recorded and played with Ella Fitgerald

Kenny Burrell (b. 1931) – active from the 50s to present day

Lenny Breau (b. 1941, d. 1984) – not as prolific as his predecessors but respected by many as an innovator

George Benson (b. 1943) – active from 1954 to present day, crossover into R&B, acid jazz

Pat Metheny (b. 1954) – identified with jazz fusion; not known for “jazzbox” but mostly the solid body electric guitar

Stanley Jordan (b. 1959) – innovative finger tapping style; classical guitar sensibility

Ronny Jordan (b. 1962) – acid jazz pioneer; fusion with hip-hop

Russell Malone (b. 1963) – straight ahead jazz player, taking up the torch from Montgomery and Burrell; toured with the great organist, Jimmy Smith

Album Review: Live at the Bijou, Grover Washington Jr., 1977

If you think of “adult contemporary” music when you hear Grover Washington Jr.’s name, you need to listen to this and stand corrected. Washington brings a driving funk sound to his jazz and is a virtuoso improvisor.

Without exaggeration, this is in my top 10 albums of all time, in any genre. Every track is strong in its own way and works perfectly in the sequence on the album. Even the 20+ minute opus midway through is thoroughly listenable. The opening track, “On the Cusp,” has one of the best intros ever, with an electric keyboard bursting onto the scene, completely upstaging the muted baseline that opens the song. “Funkfoot” is an exceptional finish that makes you leap out of your seat, just as the live audience undoubtedly did on that May night in Philadelphia. Oh to be at the Bijou when this magic was made!

I have to give credit to Toronto DJ’s Mike Tull and Paul E. Lopez for introducing me to “Funkfoot” on their community radio show, Vibes & Stuff, which aired on CIUT 89.5FM in the late 1980s. It took me 10 years to find this recording after I first heard it on their show. Oddly, it was in a strip mall in Dallas, Texas where I finally found the disc, well before the days of iTunes.